Theory on White collar crime: Counterfeit university of Oklahoma April 14, 2014 White collar crime is a defined as a crime committed by an individual of high special ranking, Tanat receives a lot AT repress In ten community, ten term colane DAY sociologist Sutherland. Over the years this description of white collar crime has been contested and now covers a range of crimes. One in particular is counterfeit. This can happen a number of ways, one that is becoming more common is counterfeit money scams and committing fraud towards a financial institution.
One of the most recent asses of counterfeiting is the the ring of five men that circulated six million dollars worth in the money market. I come across this crime on regular basis at work. I work as a deposit loss prevention analyst at a bank here in Norman. My coworker wonder why people deposit counterfeit checks into the bank and commit fraud on our clients accounts. I say people commit this crime because they feel they need the money and lack the drive to go out and earn the money themselves. This concept sounds all too familiar. This concept I described can be explained by Marten’s Strain theory.
Throughout this essay I will describe the processes of bank scams and counterfeit in the bank. Do not confused, this essay is not to teach you how to be successful at committing fraud at a bank or scamming a bank. This sole purpose is to give an inside look on white collar bank scams and the theory of why the crime is committed and how to prevent it. On December 18, 2013, three men were charged with counterfeit, forgery, criminal conspiracy and identity theft. These men hailed in Philadelphia and New York. These men have stolen business checks from a US Postal office between the years of 2010-2012.
The suspects are as follows :Tore Boxcar,Named Confederacy Koenig, Shaded Debate, and Debits Ladino. Boxcar and Coned are still at large , while the other three men are currently in custody (“Chester township man,” 2013) . Allegedly one of the suspects, Coned had recruited Boxcar; who worked at Wells Fargo bank at the time as a bank representative, to assist in the ring by allowing people to open accounts with the stolen checks. Koenig, who worked as a teller at Wells Fargo bank overrode the deposit and withdrawal of the stolen checks soon after their deposit(“Postal Reporter News Blob”, 2013) .
While the other three worked as an inside Job from the bank, the other two men, Debate and Debits used the stolen checks in internet scams; instructing people to open accounts with the stolen checks as well. General Kane, an attorney for Debate and Debits represented them in an earlier phase of the investigation. Koenig was taken into custody on December 27, 2013. These three men currently await trial, but this is still an ongoing investigation(“Postal Reporter News Blob”, 2013) . The article did not say much about the men’s’ background, but one can assume that they came from urban areas of lower working class.
Judging from their last names, they could be second or third generation immigrants. In one look at this article, the reason for their behavior can be described as they simply needed the money. This basic idea is what Marten’s strain theory focuses on. Marten’s structural strain theory derived from his idea of how society and social institutions provide structure for individuals in society. Morton focused on the factors of deviance and strain playing a role in how society had structured individuals in different ways. Deviance can be defined as behavior or character that is different from societal norms or values.
Deviance is an act that causes a group to respond negatively to their behavior. Strain is defined as the pressure placed on individuals to contort to tender societal norms, In response Monolinguals can Decode participants In a subculture of deviance. Morton believed that deviance is a natural part of society. People are born as individuals with their own minds and interests. People’s behaviors and interests are formed into what is expected of them in society as they grow older. The subculture the individual is apart of and social institutions that individual participates in is what shapes their behavior and expectations they need to meet.
Morton furthers his theory by creating five different types of deviances. They are as follows: conformists, ritualism, innovators, retreats, and rebels ( Lists, 2009). These groups vary in whether they have the ability to achieve the goals expected of them in society (means) and the various goals that societal institutions have bestowed upon them ( goals). Conformists are the group of individuals that have the opportunities or means to achieve the goals that society has given them ( Lists, 2009). These are the people who accept the goals set for them and use their means to achieve them.
For example, most conformists are those who come from middle class exurbia who are expected to obtain a career where they can support themselves and their family comfortably. These conformists would go to college to gain higher education and pursue to obtain the careers that are expected of them. Ritualism are individuals that have the means to achieve the goals for them and will normally go about the means to achieve the goals for them, but in contrast to conformists, ritualism will do the bare minimum to achieve these goals and only meet the bare minimum of goals expected of them ( Lists, 2009).
These people have the means, but don’t fully accept the goals set for them. For instance, a ritualism would aim to work a nine to five Job, but not work for personal advancement. Innovators are people who are given the opportunities to achieve the goals that society sets for them, the same as conformists and ritualism. Innovators are different because they don’t accept the means that are given to them, but accept the goals ( Lists, 2009). Innovators search to reach goals in alternate ways. Drug lords, the mafia, and people like the creator of Google would be considered innovators.
Retreats and rebels are similar because they both reject the goals given by society and the means to achieve these goals. They differ in how they respond to rejecting both the means and the goals from society (Lists, 2009). Retreats will remove themselves from society altogether and live in solitary communities with other individuals like them. This can be represented by hippies, nomads, or hermits. Rebels reject the means and goals of society, but in contrast to ritualism rebels won’t separate themselves from society , instead they will try to change society. I would call Martin Luther King Jar. Bell and other civil rights activists. In relation to the present crime of counterfeit and conspiracy formed by this ring of men, Morton would describe these men as innovators. The detail on the background of these men was limited, but it was reported that these men had at one time had a steady Job, working nine to five. Like innovators, these men had the goals that society had bestowed upon them, but rejected the means. These men chose to take an alternate route to behave financial success, instead of pursuing careers approved by society; these men chose to pursue criminal careers in running bank scams.
Different subcultures in society have different goals for the participants of tenet social Institutions ( Paternoster Ana De 2003). We must take Into consideration that these men are of African descent, the goals for African Americans in certain subculture are less than what the goals are expected of other ethnicities. We must also look at how some subcultures may not provide the means or opportunities to achieve these goals that their subculture has set for them. One of the men apart of the ring, Deadbeats Ladino is from Chester Township area, 300 block of Ante Ellis drive and Shaded Debate is from Brooklyn, New York.
These two areas are known to have some of the higher crime rates in the country and high populations of poverty. These areas would be known as one of the lower class, urban populations. People from this area are stereotyped and have implications of not being able to achieve the average goals set for middle class citizens. If I were to ask Morton why these men had turned to crime he would relate their behavior to his concept of anomie. Anomie is when a society has no significance in norms or values. Anomie describes the opportunity structure in subcultures.
Anomie and the negative espouse from performing acts that are irregular from the societal norms cause the pressure on individuals, which in turn leads to strain ( Featheriness and Defile, 2003). With the limited information we can imply that these men were from a subculture where they had certain goals imposed upon them by their subculture. Their subculture can be defined as lower class or urban subculture. Goals for this subculture are similar to those goals for middle class citizens, but this social class is not given high expectations.
This subculture also is not given as many opportunities to achieve their goals. For example, public school systems in an urban population normally have worse educational systems, due to less certified teachers and the students expected to not perform well. From their names, one could assume these men are African and are immigrants to the United States or children of parents who had immigrated to the United States. I know that foreign students have a harder time finding a Job and gaining a second degree education, due to employers wanting to hire Americans.
I also know that foreign students pay a much higher tuition than American students. From this, we can imply that these men were given less opportunity to be successful citizens in America. These men had the drive to succeed in America, despite the goals set for them were not as highly expected as citizens of other backgrounds. With this imbalance, their subculture can become filled with retreats who lack any values or norms or ritualism who don’t truly care for obtaining anything passed their required goals.
In result, these men came from an anomie subculture. Anomie answers the question of how these men became criminals. As mentioned previously, there was a social imbalance the goals set by society and the approved means of obtaining those goals, which caused their subculture to denationalizations , thus making a society that lacks values and norms ( Morton, 1968. 671, 679). Unlike other individuals in their community, these men accepted the goals set for them, but lacked the values to obtain these goals in a way approved by society.
These men were restricted by social barriers, due to the subculture they were surrounded by that differed from the upper class subculture, which set the goals for majority citizens. These restrictions caused these men to feel pressured to commit deviant acts, which Morton calls strain. We can use Marten’s structural theory to prevent and understand crime in a number of ways. Morton explains how crime is caused by the imbalance of the means and goals in social institutions that vary by subcultures ( Morton, 1968. 679-681). These ring of men are an example of a product of imbalanced social institutions.
Morton applied the concept of pressures as a result of imbalanced social institutions. When it comes to crime, we can consider the social institutions the criminal came from. To understand the reason behind the crime, we must look at the goal the criminal was trying to achieve financially and socially. After identifying the goals they are trying to achieve, we must look at what is expected of them in their subculture. After finding the difference between the two we can either decider the individual into one of the five deviance groups Morton provided.
Lastly, we look at opportunities they were given to achieve societal goals and if they accept or reject those means to achieve those goals. Morton implied that crime begins with society and the reasons behind delinquency and non delinquency. The acts of delinquency can come from anger or frustration of not obtaining what they want or need. Failure to achieve a goal can lead to a negative response in society, thus causing delinquency ( Morton, 1938. 680-681). This theory can be applied to all classes and all subcultures. Marten’s theory was parallel to Sutherland theory of white collar crime.
Morton and Sutherland helps us to understand that crime is not directly associated with poverty. In Sutherland Principle of Criminology he states that white collar crime comes from when social goals spans across all classes and simple life becomes unsatisfying; the individual becomes aware that vast wealth is not secured by labor ND working hard, but secured more so through social manipulation. Morton expresses that crime happens when societal goals are universal across subcultures, but with varying means of achieving those goals (Morton, 1938. 681).
We can also apply Marten’s aspect of anomie to explain crime as a result of society having a lack of norms when their is sudden societal change. To prevent crime, from Morton, the solution seems simple. In lame’s terms, we mud prevent societal goals being universally accepted by different societies, if we are to allow every society to have the same goals we must ensure they have the same means and opportunities to achieve these goals. We must prevent the strain aspect by removing pastures of achieving almost UN-achievable goals. To do this, we must eliminate deviance, which causes strain that leads to delinquency.
How we create a non deviant society has not yet been answered, but the crime of the ring of counterfeiters could have been prevented if they would have accepted the means to reach societal goals. These men may have been more accepting to the means of accepting goals if they had different societal goals. We identified that their strain was caused by having universal goals across socioeconomic classes. If more background about these men’s’ subcultures were provided, then Marten’s theory would have made it easier to define how to prevent men like them from committing counterfeit and conspiracy.