The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) recommends the approach of calculating the BMIs for male and female children at the regular intervals of six months against a set value that they must pass through at the age of 18 which is defined between the values: 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2 from the age of 2 (Bellizzi MC. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 117S–175S).
While processing such statistical data, another crucial aspect is to document the data in a professional manner. The data which is carefully processed and systematically documented will not only lessen the burden of re-working on the same set of data, but also enhances the quality of the its manipulation. The World Health Organization (WHO) of UN (United Nations) has set definitive guidelines that any healthcare organization anywhere in the world must follow.
These guidelines are designed so that there does not exist anything ambiguous in the data pertaining to the obese kids all over the world – for instance the normal BMI remains same irrespective of whether the child is American or African, and the only defining factors or parameters will be the weight and height of the child concerned. Therefore the convergence of such efforts is of prime importance if we ever have to achieve success against this prevalence of obesity.
Not just that, but the sharing of such data on a common, international platform is also of same magnitude since sharing of such data will definitely channelize the efforts of specialists in an unified direction and would certainly influence the yield of positive results. And it is such positive results that millions of unfortunate children are fervently praying for. It is needless to mention the vitality of such combined endeavours in order that we control a humongous challenge like childhood obesity.
This thesis work is developed keeping all these matters as the background. 3. Methodology: The general approach that will be employed throughout this dissertation will be both ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’. I have declared in the above parts that the prime area of investigation selected in this thesis is to understand the factual situation of whether we need to carry out more researches to prevent obesity or not. In other words, I will explore if conducting many more supplementary researches is a solution for childhood obesity or not.
My aim would be to prove the impracticality of conducting more researches in this direction and to demonstrate how implementing the solutions suggested thus far would be a great positive step towards the prevention of childhood obesity. As said earlier, this subject under consideration involves humongous an amount of data and as such, the treatment of such data must be from both the quality and quantity fronts. The research papers which are going to be analyzed in this dissertation will be treated with incisive insight taking into account all of the intrinsic factors upon which a particular thesis is based.
Different researchers follow different methods to arrive at their desired results and understandably so. Hence, it will be mandatory that we approach every thesis and researches with the same attitude with which they were proposed. I have selected 12 research papers as the platform for my thesis. The method is to use these research papers to assess the contemporary factual circumstances (checking if they demand more research), and thereafter investigate this area with critical viewpoint.
Finally, my thesis will use the in-depth analysis of these 12 research papers (and a few more additional studies to confirm my thesis argument) as the central resource to arrive at the specific aim declared at the beginning of this paper. The principal objectives would be to assess ways to prevent obesity in childhood. Since we are going to employ various tasks to assess such ways, it follows that we define a specific working criterion for them. For instance estimating the effect of dietary education interventions vs.
control; examination of the effect of physical activity interventions vs. Control; checking the effect of dietary education interventions vs. physical activity interventions; analyzing combined effects of dietary education interventions and physical activity interventions vs. Control and many more such procedures. All the parameters such as study design, selection of participants, the type of intervention, and different upshot instruments are used by respective researchers in the papers which are going to be analyzed.
However, Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) give very near accurate and slightest predisposed estimates of effect size (Imrie J BMJ 1998; 316:611–613). Live, Eat and Play (LEAP) trial is a best example of randomized controlled trial of a brief secondary prevention intervention delivered by family physicians in 2002–2003 that targeted overweight/mildly obese children aged 5 to 9 years. In this trial the researchers’ primary care utilization was prospectively audited via medical records.
Parents reported family resource use by written questionnaire. Outcome measures were BMI (primary) and parent-reported physical activity and dietary habits (secondary) in intervention compared with control children (Melissa Wake et al. The LEAP Trial). However, the CHOPPS (Christchurch Obesity Prevention Program in Schools) research is a little analytical in that the researchers utilize various statistical data to assess a method of preventing the obesity of children in schools.
Several different methods are used to assess overweight and obesity in children. The researchers define overweight and obesity using the 1990 British centile charts, in which children above the 91st centile are classified as overweight. In the original project, the children in the three year groups attended junior schools in Christchurch, Dorset. Three years after baseline, the two older year groups had progressed to secondary schools and were tracked using school leaving lists.
Most were attending three local secondary schools. From the original sample, 90 children had moved out of the area and 43 were attending secondary schools that were either outside of the project area or had fewer than six children from the original project attending. Overall the researchers traced 511 children from the original sample and carried out measurements on 434, 67% of the original sample. The sample size of 376 calculated for the original project was based on changes in consumption of carbonated drinks.
This sample size had 90% power to detect mean differences in z score (SD score) for BMIs of 0. 49, 0. 42, 0. 35, and 0. 34 (assuming intra cluster correlations of 0. 1, 0. 05, 0. 01, and 0. 001, respectively) between the intervention and control groups (Janet James Et All. CHOPPS Trial). Likewise, there will be different methods of approach employed by different researchers, and they will be considered in the body of the literature in greater detail. Every method must is unique in its own parameters and aims it has set to achieve.