Negative control was used during DNA

The use of molecular data to infer the history of species and genes is called phylogenetics. A phylogenetic tree is a branched diagram that shows relationships between entities and their common ancestors. Genetic distance can be used to determine the phylogeny of organisms. BLAST was used to determine the number of nucleotide differences in each pair of sequences. Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic means (UPGMA) was used to organize genetic distance calculation.

In that method, in order to create a tree, all the genetic distances were aligned in a pair-wise fashion to create an N x N table (matrix). All species with the smallest distance were combined into a single group and then the matrix was recalculated with new distance from the other group to the other plants using the formula: Dist (A/B) to C= (Dist A to C + Dist B to C)/2. These were the first branches of the tree. The procedure was repeated three times to calculate the genetic distance. Results: The final result was to extract DNA from a sample in DNA extraction.

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Cell wall, lipids, proteins, RNA and secondary compounds were removed by DNA extraction. In PCR reaction Millions of copies of DNA can be made in few hours in PCR reaction also with high quality DNA. Exponential amplification of the DNA was done through a PCR reaction. Through DNA sequencing, linear amplification was carried out and forward and reverse reactions were separated. After the result of sequencing was obtained, the product was run on BLAST, the genetic distance was determined and this was then to build the UPGMA tree.

ITS region and UPGMA tree were both constructed from the result. It was determined that Anethum graveolens and Foeniculum vulgare were closely related (Fig. 1). Coriandrum sativum and Petroselinum crispum had shorter genetic distance and less amount of similarity between them. Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum and Petroselinum crispum were closely related to each other than with Anethum Graveolens which had genetic distance of 10 (Table 1).

Discussion:

The hypothesis was clearly validated by the result. Gene identification and characterization were used to extract the DNA. DNA extraction was also used in the forensic department to get better results. The result observed and determined that genetic distance between Anethum Graveolens and other plants were at the smallest amount. Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum and Petroselinum crispum were closely related to each other compared to Anethum Graveolens.

In market experiment was used in personalized medicine like proactive health care, clinical trial and drug treatment. It was also used in different types such as identification, biotechnology department and basic research. Negative control was used during DNA sequencing to check for impurities, which can give false products. In the future, study of DNA sequences will be used in pharmaceutical manufacturers, nanotechnology, and bioinformatics companies. Sanger reaction will have its market status and its impact on the future market.

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