Genes determine biological sex; assess the extent to which gender is bases on our genes. Although our chromosomal pairing will determine our sex (XX ” female and XX ” male), this does not necessarily determine one’s gender. Gender is influenced at a pre-natal stage, via the release of testosterone from the gonads of an XX fetus. It is this testosterone release that sets in motion the train of events that lead to the eventual release of the other androgen’s from the pituitary gland. It is the lack of testes, and therefore the lack of testosterone, that influences an XX fetus to develop into a female.
Even before these events take place, the undeveloped gonads in the XX or XX fetus (Enameller and Wolfing respectively) are Instructed to develop into testes or ovaries (again, respectively) due to the presence or absence (In the case of the XX female) of a gene called CRY on the Y chromosome. Although both of these processes are designed to produce not only a male or female sex but also a male or female gender, they do not always succeed in doing so. A rare condition called AXIS (Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) is seen in some people. This insensitivity of their developing bodies to the androgen’s in their bodies (being
XX individuals), means that they have male chromosomes, but appear female. Most AXIS sufferers will live relatively full lives with a female gender, although they are not able to have children. Conversely, there are also some XX Individuals who, due to excessive exposure to male hormones whilst developing, have a condition called Androgenic syndrome, which gives them the appearance of being a male, including having what looks like male genitalia. In the case of both AXIS and Androgenic Syndrome, we see that chromosomes have not managed to determine gender. Some people are born one sex, but believe themselves to be in the “wrong” body.
In this case, men have transgender operations to be able to adopt a female lifestyle and biological women, who similarly feel they are In the “wrong” body, can have transgender operations, Including a philosophical (which Is a cosmetic surgical procedure that fashions them a pens). In such cases as these, clearly, a person’s chromosomal configuration has not determined their gender. I newer Is strong evidence Tanat Tort some, our Ideology Ana not our nurture Is want makes us essentially masculine or feminine. In the case of David Reamer (Money 1975), baby Bruce was raised as a girl after a botched circumcision left him without a en’s.
His name changed to Brenda (and later, David, on resuming a male gender identity), he was castrated at 2 years, encouraged to play with dolls, follow feminine pursuits and dress as a girl. He was given estrogen at 12 to induce female puberty. Despite all his parents’ efforts, David said he never “felt” like a girl ” always like a boy. In cases such as this, we can see that some aspects of our nature have a strong influence on our gender and so, we must conclude that it is a combination of nature and nurture that male us who we are in terms of our gender. Genes direct us, but sometimes things Just don’t go as planned.