Session 5 Anatomy and Physiology Lab Report

This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor. Purpose: What is the purpose of this exercise? The learn about the different joints our bodies consist of and how those joints help our bodies function and move.

Are there any safety concerns associated with this exercise? If so, list what they are and what precautions should be taken. No exeRcise 1: Questions As you observe the skull, explain how the structure of the sutures between the cranial bones is related to the overall function of the cranium. The sutures help hold the cranial bones in one piece, because they are almost interlocking the bones are able to snap together and make what almost seems like a solid piece of bone. Why are synarthroses an important component of fibrous joints?

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Synarthroses joints are used for functionality and are immovable which works perfect for fibrous joints which in most cases do not want or need to be moved. exeRcise 2: Questions Cartilaginous joints exhibit amphiarthroses. Why is this important? Amphiarthroses joints are slightly moveable which works perfectly with cartilaginous joints because where cartilaginous joints are located, such as the top 5 ribs, need to be somewhat flexible. Structurally, how are cartilaginous joints similar? They are all slightly moveable and a piece of cartilage connects the bone ends,

exeRcise 3: Questions Which type of synovial joint has the least amount of movement? The gliding joint such as the joints between the carpals and tarsals. Why are diarthroses important for synovial joints? Synovial joints must move freely and the diarthoses are the only joints that are capable of moving freely, allowing for all types of movement. Which synovial joint is most movable? The ball and socket joint is the most moveable joint in the body because of its ability to fully rotate. What are the four structural characteristics that all synovial joints share?

A two layered articular capsule which helps create the joint cavity, inside the capsule is the synovial membrane which contains the synovial fluid, the articular cartilage covers the surface of the bones forming the joint and ligaments that reinforce the capsule. exeRcise 4: Questions Which of the body movements was the most difficult to perform?

Why? I suppose the hardest one to perform was the circumduction because it combines all the different types of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction. Hinge joints like the elbow and knee have limited movement.

Why are these types of joints more prone to injury? Because these joints accidentally being moved a different way can hurt the bone, cartilage and or ligaments. When performing flexion on the arm, the biceps muscle (on the anterior of the arm) contracts.What happens to the triceps muscle (on the posterior of the arm) as this action is performed? I don’t feel that it does anything, so i suppose it just relaxes, when performing extension I can feel the triceps get tight. Both the shoulder and the hip are ball and socket joints. Why does the shoulder have a greater range of motion than the hip?

The hip joint is much deeper set than the shoulder joint, the hip joint also contains strong ligaments and thicker muscles surrounding than the shoulder, the shoulder is meant more for mobility whereas the hips were meant more for stability. exeRcise 5: obseRvations Sketch your chicken wing: Label the bones, muscles, tendons and joints. [pic] exeRcise 5: Questions What effect will the tearing of a tendon have on its corresponding muscle? Muscles are attached to bones through tendons, if a tendon is torn it will not be able to allow the muscle proper movement and flexion.

Why are ligaments harder to heal than tendons? Ligaments are harder to heal because they have less blood supply than tendons Compare and contrast tendons and ligaments.

Bones are attached to other bones by ligaments and muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Ligaments and tendons are made out of dense connective tissue, but ligaments have better vascularization. Both ligaments and tendons provide support and stability for synovial joints. What is the function of fascia? Depending on the type of fascia depends on the function it serves.

But the main function when comparing it to tendons and ligaments is that it is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles and other structures while holding them together. What effect would the loss of articular cartilage have on a joint, its bones and their corresponding muscles?

The joints would rub together causing grinding and friction and not allowing the joint to smoothly glide over each other. Because of the friction, the muscles will become over worked trying to compensate for the loss of smoothness. Conclusions Explain how skin, bones, and muscles are related to each other. Why is this relationship important to the understanding of the skeletal and muscular systems?

Slowly as this class goes on we realize that every part of our body is connected. Our muscles are connected to our bones, and our skin covers all of our muscles. Each work together to keep a stable living environment for our bodies. The homeostasis of our bodies are dependent on each function working properly and well together.

———————– Joints and Body MoveMents Joints and Body MoveMents Experiment Experiment 159 159 ©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ©Hands-On Labs, Inc. www. LabPaq. com www. LabPaq. com.

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